Friday, 24 April 2015

A Fortified Manor House Built on Rock: Spofforth Castle

Spofforth Castle, Spofforth, North Yorkshire

A fascinating and exciting ruin to explore, with lots of hidden nooks and crannies, Spofforth Castle is built on a rocky outcrop and was the principal seat of the Percys until the late 14th century.

Originally a fortified manor house, it was built by William de Percy, a favourite of William the Conqueror, in the 11th century. It is reputed that rebel barons drew up the Magna Carta here in 1215.


Spofforth Castle, Spofforth, North Yorkshire


A license to crenelate was granted to a Henry de Percy in 1308. Unfortunately the Percys supported the House of Lancaster in the Wars of the Roses and, following the battle of Towton in 1461, the Yorkists burnt the castle and plundered the surrounding countryside.

Spofforth Castle, Spofforth, North Yorkshire

Spofforth Castle, Spofforth, North Yorkshire



In 1559, the ruined castle was restored by Henry, Lord Percy, but the seat of Percy power was now Alnwick in Northumbria, and 1604 saw the last recorded occupant, the castle finally being reduced to a ruin again during the English Civil War.

It is now under the guardianship of English Heritage, and entrance is free.


Spofforth Castle, Spofforth, North Yorkshire

Spofforth Castle, Spofforth, North Yorkshire

Spofforth Castle, Spofforth, North Yorkshire


One of the many interesting features, is that it is built on a rocky outcrop, and the solid face forms one side of the west range, with a series of cut steps and a passage (blocked) that used to lead up to the great hall from the undercroft. (Excellent couple of worn steps, for worn step aficionados...)

Spofforth Castle, Spofforth, North Yorkshire


A fascinating and atmospheric ruin to visit, if you're ever in the area!

Thanks for reading!

Anne

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Thursday, 23 April 2015

In Search of the Cowthorpe Oak

The Cowthorpe Oak
 'Compared with this, all other trees are children of the forest' 
Dr Hunter, Evelyn's Sylva 1776 (Image 1872)


Dr Hunter was talking about the Cowthorpe Oak, which used to grow in the small North Yorkshire village of Cowthorpe, three miles from Wetherby, and was once the greatest and most famous oak tree in Britain. By the time it died, in around 1950, it was estimated to be between 1200-1800 years old and it holds the record of being the largest girthed English Oak ever recorded in Britain: over 14.3 metres (46.9ft,) in 1804.

To give a living comparison, from an article in The Guardian dated 9th April 2011: "The mighty Bowthorpe Oak, near Bourne in Lincolnshire is Europe's greatest girth English Oak at a massive 42 feet"

The Revd Thomas Jessop, visiting the mighty oak in 1829, observed:

"It is said by the inhabitants of the village, that seventy persons at one time got within the hollow of the trunk, but on enquiry, I found many of these were children; and, as the tree is hollow throughout to the top, I suppose they sat on each other's shoulders; yet, without exaggeration, I believe the hollow capable of containing forty men."

The picture at the top of the page is an engraving of the Cowthorpe Oak first published in 1872, (artist unknown,) and gives a very good impression of the tree's popularity, and the vast crowds that it attracted.

Considered to be in full vigour around the 1700s, it was said to have occupied a site of nearly half an acre. No tour to the North of England was complete without a visit to this champion of oaks, and it was a favourite of writers and artists from the mid-eighteenth century onwards, although it had obviously been well known for many years before:

'An oak whose boughs were mossed with age, and high top bald with dry antiquity'
- William Shakespeare on the Cowthorpe Oak in 'As you Like It,' c.1600

The Cowthorpe Oak The Illustrated London News 1857
The Illustrated London News 1857
 
It is believed that this venerable old tree succumbed at last in the 1950s. A photograph taken in 1908 by Sir Benjamin Stone, shows the tree still in good shape, with a lot of strong branches and folliage, although many of the branches are now propped up.

It was only relatively recently that I even heard about this tree, and realised with amazement that, not only had this behemoth of trees lived In Yorkshire, but also very close to me. I had to go and see if any trace remained.....

Thus, on a bitterly cold January day, we set out for glorious Cowthorpe.

Our first indication that we were in the right place, was the Cowthorpe sign as we entered the village, which sported a small picture of an oak tree. Feeling vindicated, and excited, we looked for the church, as we knew the oak had been close to this, expecting to find some sort of sign, or memorial. Parking close to St Michael's, which is now no longer used, we were pleased to find it was open. Inside was a laminated illustration of Cowthorpe's claim to fame, and accompanying text taken from the Sylvia Brittannica 1830 edition. Nothing more.

St Michael's Church Cowthorpe
St Michael's Church Cowthorpe
 
St Michael's Church Cowthorpe
Some rather impressively angled conifers at the entrance to St Michael's!

We went back outside into the bitter wind, which was cold enough to freeze a mammoth, and started to wander, attempting to find some clue as to where the majestic oak had stood.

St Michael's Church Cowthorpe
St Michael's from the footpath

A footpath crossed the edge of the field behind the church and, from memory, this looked to be the field in which the oak had stood. We had fully expected some kind of signage or memorial, at the least, a rotting stump at most. Nothing....


Field behind St Michael's Church Cowthorpe
Interesting planting pattern - some sort of marker/memorial?

St Michael's Church Cowthorpe
St Michael's from the adjacent field
Field behind St Michael's Church Cowthorpe
Dip/pond in the field - left over from rotting stump?



To be honest, though, we didn't linger to examine the ground microscopically, as frostbite was an issue. Taking one last look over the field that I believe hosted the giant, and the many many crowds who flocked to look on in awe, or to picnic beneath the mighty boughs, or to perch precariously on each others' shoulders within the hollow, I was reminded of the lines from Percy Bysshe Shelley's Ozymandias:

I met a traveller from an antique land
Who said: Two vast and trunkless legs of stone
Stand in the desert. Near them on the sand,
Half sunk, a shatter'd visage lies, whose frown
And wrinkled lip and sneer of cold command
Tell that the sculptor well those passions read
Which yet survive, stamp'd on these lifeless things,
The hand that mock'd them and the heart that fed.
And on the pedestal these words appear:
"My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings:
Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!"
Nothing beside remains;round the decay
Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare,
The lone and level sands stretch far away.

Now I know that we didn't find any remains of the Cowthorpe Oak, but the sentiment expressed in the words above did seem to resonate. Such an important and known place at one time, and now mostly forgotten. It is a feeling I often have when visiting ancient sites and looking out over an empty windswept place that I know once teemed with people in another time. It does most certainly give me a sense of mortality, a sense of perspective and a view of the ephemeral nature of both our individual lives, and the importance we place on our own time and preoccupations.

An acorn from the Cowthorpe Oak was reputedly taken by Captain James Runciman to New Zealand in 1870 and planted on his farm at Drury, South Auckland. Known as the Runciman Oak, it has grown remarkably quickly due to the climate.

I'm sure that there will be other survivors of the mighty Cowthorpe Oak, such as other offspring and items made from its wood, but I have not found any mention during my research.

19th Century Oil Painting of Cowthorpe Oak unknown artist. Wikimedia
19th Century Oil Painting of Cowthorpe Oak unknown artist. Wikimedia(link below)

Although we found nothing of note on our trip, the research itself has been really interesting and led to me finding other trees and places of interest to visit. I'm sure that the Cowthorpe Oak must have been a wonder to behold, and I would love to have been there when all the people squashed inside, and to experience such a giant.

Thanks for reading!

bod

Justbod Team

Final note.....
If anyone does know anything about the original position of the tree, or has any knowledge of anything that was made from it, please do get in touch. I hope to return to the site on a warmer day, armed with copies of the illustrations I've found, and try to pipoint its original location. When I do I will post an update.....

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 Sources and further information: 


Online:
(an article from a few years ago for a comparison!) 
Books:
Britain's Tree Story: The National Trust
The British Oak: Archie Miles

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Partial update Jan 2017: I'm ashamed to say that we've still not been back to the site! However, thank you to all of you who have contacted us with information and photos of artefacts made from the wood of this most famous tree. I'm still planning on doing a fuller update at some point in the future.....

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